Chiang Mai, located in northern Thailand, is home to several hill tribes, each with their own distinct culture, language, and traditions. These are just a few of the hill tribes that inhabit the Chiang Mai region, each contributing to the diverse cultural landscape of northern Thailand.

Hmong hill tribe

Hmong (Miao)

Originally from China, the Hmong people migrated to Thailand centuries ago. They are known for their intricate embroidery, distinctive silver jewelry, and vibrant festivals. If you plan to visit the famous temple, Wat Doi Suthep you can also visit Hmong villages and shop for handmade indigo products. 

lisu hill tribe people

The Lisu

The Lisu people are known for their vibrant traditional clothing and intricate beadwork. They have their own language and cultural practices, including shamanistic rituals. The Lisu people are a Tibeto-Burman ethnic group who inhabit mountainous regions of Myanmar (Burma), southwest China, and Thailand. The Lisu are believed to have originated in eastern Tibet even before present Tibetans arrived in the plateau. 


The Kayan people, the Karenni hill tribe in Myanmar (Burma). They are known for the women’s practice of wearing brass rings around their necks, starting from a young age, which give the appearance of elongated necks. In recent years, due to political unrest and persecution in Myanmar, some Kayan people have fled to neighboring countries like Thailand, where they have established villages, particularly in the Chiang Mai and Mae Hong Son provinces. These villages have become self sustainable as tourist attractions, where visitors can learn about Kayan culture and traditions, including their unique practice of wearing the brass rings. However, it’s essential to approach these visits with cultural sensitivity and respect for the Kayan people’s dignity and autonomy. There has been so much debate online about if/ how to visit that we have a full article about the topic here.

lahu people


The Lahu people are known for their expertise in hunting, farming, and herbal medicine. They have their own unique language and cultural practices. The Chinese name “Lahu” literally means “to drag favour from heaven”.  The traditional Lahu religion is polytheistic. Buddhism was introduced in the late 17th century and became widespread. Lahu, along with the Hmong, and Mien were recruited by the United States CIA to help fight against the communist Pathet Lao, known as the secret war, during the Laotian Civil War. In fear of retribution when the Pathet Lao took over, those who had helped the United States fled to neighboring Thailand seeking political asylum.

akha hill tribe


The Akha hill tribe is known for their striking traditional attire adorned with elaborate headdresses and silver ornaments. They have a rich oral tradition and are skilled in agriculture. Entrances to all Akha villages are fitted with a wooden gate adorned with elaborate carvings on both sides depicting imagery of men and women. It is known as a “spirit gate”. The population of the Akha today is roughly 400,000. A decline in village size in Thailand since the 1930s has been noted and attributed to the deteriorating ecological and economic situation in the mountains. Due to rapid social and economic changes in the regions the Akha inhabit, particularly the introduction of Western modes of capitalism, attempts to continue many of the traditional aspects of Akha life are increasingly difficult. Despite these challenges, Akha people practice many elements of their traditional culture with much success.

The Akha relationship to land is vitally connected to the continuation of the Akha culture, but they rarely have “official” or state-sanctioned land rights or claims to their land as land rights are considered traditional. These conceptions of land are at odds with those held by the nation states whose land the Akha now occupy. Most Akha are not full-fledged citizens of the country they inhabit and are thus not allowed to legally purchase land.

Mien (Yao)

The Mien people have a distinct language and are known for their colorful embroidered clothing. They have a rich spiritual belief system and are skilled in handicrafts. The majority of Iu Mien was among the Lao communist’s enemies due to their involvement with the U.S. CIA operation during the war in Laos. Iu Mien began fleeing the Laos communist regime in mid-1975 into Thailand. These escapes mostly began late at night. While Laos communist troops were sleeping whole villages would be packed with their personal belongings, valuable items, silver bars, jewelry, and food. Everyone had to carry their personal belongings on their backs and walk barefoot.